Widespread and generally common perennial of woodlands of most kinds; scarce in N Scotland and Ireland. Upright stems carry oval, toothed leaves. Clusters of insignificant male and female flowers borne on separate plants, February toApril. Height up to 35cm
An upright and unbranched downy-haired perennial of woodlands, especially under oak or beech, sometimes adundant Leaves are shiny, dark green and ovate-lanceolate with toothed margins; most leaves are borne on upper part of plant. ( smelling slightly unpleasant when rubbed ) Clusters of rather insignificant greenish flowers are borne on upright spikes. Male and female flowers on separate plants . Flowering March - May. Up to 50 cm tall. Indicator of ancient woodland.